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中国古老绘画语境陶瓷艺术的当代发展
作者: 史一墨 发布时间: 2019年09月22日 08:52
作者: 史一墨 2019年09月22日 08:52

  摘要: 陶瓷艺术都是一个历久弥新、历史悠久的艺术门类。它能够给疲乏、繁忙的中国人以清雅宜人、欣欣向荣的艺术体验。陶瓷艺术作为中国古老的艺术门类,在时代的发展中不断的呈现新的绘画语境、工艺特色、技术难度。不断的进行着自满堂彩的完善和调适,以期能够更好地与当代艺术相融合。但是在中国艺术史实际的发展过程相中陶瓷艺术正在逐渐的被边缘化,这种边缘化与陶瓷艺术的发展、当代艺术的变迁有着直接的关系。本文从陶瓷艺术在当代艺术中被边缘化的原因入手,对陶瓷艺术的绘画语境进行了分析,并在此基础上对中国古老绘画语境陶瓷艺术的当代发展之路展开了探讨。希望能够给相关的工作人员以参考启示,推动满堂彩国陶瓷艺术的进一步发展。

  关键词: 古老绘画语境;陶瓷绘画;当代发展

  taociyishushizhongguodeyishu,gengshishijiedeyishu。taociyishuzaizhongguodefazhanyoulaiyijiu,tashizhongguoshangxiawuqiannianlishidewenhuaxiangzheng,tashiqinlaoyonggandezhongguorenminxianjishijierenmendewenhuaguibao。dangmantangcaichenzuiyutaociyishudecuicanlishishi,yeyaojinyiburenshidaotaociyishuzaidangdaiyishuchaoliudefazhanzhongxiangduizhihou,congyiwangdexuanlanzhiji,daorujindeguiyupingdan,zaixindeshidaibeijingxia,gulaodetaociyishuyujingyeyaojinxingxiangyingdediaozhengheyouhua,rangqibuduanqudejiyishangdetupo、guannianshangdediaozheng、shenmeishangdebianqian,rangtaociyishushixianyouxuchuanchengheyouxiaobaohu,buduantansuojuyoushiyanxing、chuangzaoxing、chuangxinxingdeyishuyangshi,rangtaociyishudewuzhigongnengheshenmeigongnengheerweiyi、rongweiyiti,rangqizaidangdaiyishudefazhanzhongbaochixiangduidedulixing,chaozhezijidejidingmubiaowenbuxiangqian。

  一、陶瓷艺术在当代艺术中被边缘化的原因分析

  taociyishuzaidangdaiyishuzhongbeibianyuanhuashiyigebunenggouhushidewenti,daozhibianyuanhuawentichuxiandeyuanyinshiduofangmiande,yifangmian,dangdaiyishuzhongshiduiqiwuzaoxing、yishushenmei、gongyicengcidejiegouhezhongsu;lingyifangmian,taociyishushiyigezaiqiwuzaoxing、yishushenmei、gongyicengcidengfangmianxiangduiwendingdeyishumenlei。dancongzheiyifangmiankan,dangdaiyishuhetaociyishuzhijiancunzaideguanxishixiangbeide、chongtude。

  1、陶瓷艺术的发展

  chuantongtaociyishujiangqiushiyongxing,qiwudeshaozhiqimudeshiweilenenggoujirenmendeshenghuotigongbianli,taocidecaizhixuanze、wenshixuanqudoubunengtuolishiyongzhuyizheiyigedadeketi。liruyangshaowenhuazhongdewudaowencaitaopen,qibenshenshiyizhongshuiqi,wenshicaiyongdeyeshijiweishenghuohuadechangjing,biaoxiandeshiyuanshixianminziyouwudaodeshengdonghuamian,xiantiaoliuchangshengdong,goutuyanjinyouxu,shijiweinandedetaoyijingpin。butonglishishiqidetaociyishuchengxianchubutongdewenhuatese,daiyouneigeshiqiduyouderenwensecai,taociyishuchengzaizhebutongshidaiderenmenduishenghuodeqipan、duiweilaidexiangwang。renmenkeyiyitaociguanshenghuo、yitaociguanrenlei、yitaociguanshijie。zaitaociyishudezhangqifazhanguochengzhong,shiyongxingyizhishiqizuiweizhudaodexuqiu,zhuangshiwenyang、qiwushenmeidoushiqiciyaokaolvdeyinsu。yizhidao20shiji50niandai,bide·wokesidechuxian,cairangtaocidefazhanburuxiandaihua,rangtaociyishushixianxindetuobianhefazhan。bide·wokesiyeyinciyebeiqinqiedechenghuwei“xiandaitaocizhifu”,tarangtaociyishushixianlechouxiangzhuyidebiaoda,changdaotaociyishujiayaoyouganerfa,gulitaociyishujiazaitaocidechuangzuoshilvxingerwei,jiangzhantubianchengyishujiaqingganbiaoda、linianshuchudezaiti,weilexiandaitaociyishudefazhandakailexindetiandi。danshidangqiandabufendetaociyuyanhaishitingliuzaicailiaoshiyandejichucengmian,meiyourudangdaiyishuyiyangshixianqizaishehuishenghuogegecengmiandeyouxiaoshentou,taociyishudexiandaihuafazhanxiangduizhihou。

  2、当代艺术的变迁

  dangdaiyishudehexinshidaposhenmeiyishudefanchou、zhonggoushenmeiyiqudeneihan,tadefashengshishishide、dangxiade,tashiduidangqianshehui、wenhua、yishudenggegefangmiandeyouyitansuo,tademubiaoshitanxunyishudebianjie,shiyan、tansuo、qiuxin、qiubianshiqijiweizhongyaodeneihanzhuiqiu。xila·leijiqiangdiaochaotuoyuziranxingshizhiwaideduliyishujiegou;saishangzhongshihuamiandegoutu,shenzhibuxixishenghuamiandexingxianggan;kangdingsijigengshiduidanchundepingmianchouxiangyouzhejinhuchikuangdezhuiqiu;“dangdaiyishuzhifu”dedushang,gengshidapoleyishudelixianggainian,zhankailezhanxindeguannianyishudechuangzuo。yishuguannianbiandegengduoyuan、yishujiazhibiandegengwenluan,yishuzhuiqiubiandegengchouxiang,dangdaiyishushiyichangzhanxindebiange,tadapoleshenmeiyishudeguyoufanchou,rangsuoyoudebukenengbianchengyishudekeneng。

  3、陶瓷艺术和当代艺术的关系

  taociyishubenzhishangshiyizhongcailiaoyishu,taqiangdiaoqiwudecaizhi、zhongshiqiwudexingshi、kanzhongqiwudezhuangshi、zhuzhongqiwudebiaoda,taocishenmeishiyizhongwuzhixingdeshenmei。dangdaiyishubenzhishangshiyizhongguannianyishu,tafanshenmei、fanxingshi、fanchuantong,dangdaiyishushiyizhongfeiwuzhixingdeshenmei,shiyizhongguannianshenmei。taociyishuhedangdaiyishuzhijiancunzaizhexiangyingdefanchadianhemaodundian,zheiyeshizaochengtaociyishuzaidangdaiyishudefazhanzhongzhujianbeibianyuanhuadeyuanyinsuozai。

  二、陶瓷艺术的绘画语境

  taociyishushiyigedulidekexuemenlei,taocidezhizuoyouzhezijiduyoudegongxuliucheng,congni、youdexuanze,daoqiwudexingcheng,daowenshidezhuangdian,daoruyaodeshaozhi,gegefangmiandouxuyaoyanmibuzhi、youxiaoxianjie,tongshiyaolushaozhidewendukongzhiyeshiyingxiangtaociqiwuzuizhongchengxianxiaoguodezhongyaoyinsu。taociyishudewuzhixingtezhengyerangtaociyishuchengxianchudutedewuzhixingshenmei,zhanxianchugexinghuadehuihuayujing。

  1、火的创造性

满堂彩  taociyishuduizhongguomeixuedezhongyaogongxianzhiyi,jiushiqidui“huo”demeixuechuangzaoqiannengjinxingleshenrudefajue、gaodudezaixian。“huo”shiqiwuchengxingdeguanjiansuozai,shitaociyishujubeichuangzaoxingdezhongyaoyuansu。“huo”zaitaociyishuzhongdeshiyong,jiuxiangshiwuzhigainianzhongdeyuanzi,rangtaociyishudeyishuchuangzuoxingshibiandeduoyang,rangtaociyishudemeishuchuangzaoneirongbiandeduoyuan,rangtaocidechengxingjubeijianlidewuzhitezheng。“huo”shiyiguxinxinxiangrong、yongjiubuxideweidaliliang,rangtaociyishudegegechuangzuohuanjiededaoxiangyingdexianjie,rangtaociqimindezaoxingyinsudedaoyouxiaodezhenghe。zaitaociyishudezhengtichuangzaozhong,“huo”shiqijiweizhongyaodehexinyaosu,tajitaociyishutigongwendu、yingzaofenwei,shirangtaociyishushixian“taohua”、“cihua”dezhongyaowuzhijichu。

  2、泥的质变性

满堂彩  “ni”shitaociyishuwanchengqiwuzaoxingdezhongyaomeijie。zaitaociyishudechubuchengxingjieduan,“ni”qizhezhongyaodemeijiegongxiao,bonipeitidezhuyaogouchengjiushi“ni”,“ni”deqiwuzaoxingtixianchuxiangyingdeziranwuzhitezheng。erhoutongguo“huo”dejianlizuoyong,zuizhongtaociyishuchengxianchudetaocixingzhuangyehuifashengxiangyingdegaibian,“ni”weiyebufucunzai,zheijiushitaociyishu“ni”dezhibianxingzheng。“ni”dezhibianxingzhengdecunzaikeyijiangtaociyishucongyizhongyuanshidewuzhizhuangtai——nixing,zhuanbianweilingyizhongquanxindewuzhizhuangtai——cixing。“ni”shitaociyishuzhongyaodezaoxingmeijie,keyirangtaociyishudezaoxingchengxianchuqianbianwanhua、qianzibaitai、duocaixijudezaoxingxiaoguo。rangtaociqiminjuyoumizhidetaizhi、guangzedeyoumian、fengfudejili、chenwendeseze、hunhoudexinggou、jiangudexingtai。rangtaociyishujubeishenghuoxingzhengdetongshi,chengxianchudutedemeishuyiyiheyishuxiaoguo。

  3、艺的审美性

  taociconglapidaochengxinghuijingguoxiangdangduodegongyichengxu,meiyigegongyichengxudeyunzhuanxiaoguodouzhijieguanxizhetaocizuopinzuizhongchengxingdechengbai,meiyidaogongxudouhuizaitaocizuopinshangliuxiahuoshenhuoqiandeluoyin,duitaocizuopindejili、xingneng、jiegou、zaoxingchanshengdahuoxiaodeyingxiang。yishujiazaijinxingtaocizuopindechuangzuozhong,keyijiangzishendeshenmeizhuiqiu、yishulinian、taoyijiqiaodengjinxingzonghederongheheyunyong,rangtaocizuopinchengweiyishujiabiaodayishuguanniandezhongyaochuangkou、shufayishuliniandezhongyaomeijie。taociyishudefazhanshirijianchengshu、rixinyueyide,duiyuyishujialaishuo,zaibaoliuchuantongtaociyishushenmeixingzhengdetongshi,haixuyaobuduandejinxingzhizuogongyidechuangxinchuangzuo,rangtaociyishudeshenmeibiandeyouzhigan、youdiaoxing、youcengci。

  三、中国古老绘画语境陶瓷艺术的当代发展

  1、突破材料的限制

  ni、huo、youshitaociyishudejibengouchengyuansu,tongguosanzhezhijiandeyouxiaojiehecainengchuangzuochudujugexingdetaociyishu,shixiantaocizuopindeqianrenqianmian、shentaigeyi。dangdaiyishushiyigekaifangdegainian,tatupolechuantongyishuzhongtiaotiaokuangkuangdeshufu,renheshiwudoukeyichengweiyishudezucheng,renhegerendoukeyichengweiyishudezhuti,duiyutaociyishueryanyaoxiangzaidangdaiyishudefazhanzhongzhanyouyixizhidi,jiubixutupocailiaodexianzhi,shulishiyanjingshen,buduanqiuxinqiubian,rangtaociyishuzouxianggengguangkuodeshijie,dapotaociyishuxiangduifengbidechuangzuozhuangtai,rangqizouchuzhongguodedilifanwei,yushijielianchengtongyidezhengti。rangtaocizouchushiyongwuzhidefanchou,rangqiconggongyipinbianchengyishupin,rangtaoyijiabianchengyishujia,jianligongjiangjingshen,rangzheiyigulaodeminsuwenhuadededaojianquanyouxudechuancheng。

  2、挣脱概念的束缚

  ruguojiangtaociyishuzhongni、huo、youdegainianyanzhanwei“suoyoukesuzhiwu、suoyoukeshaozhiwu、suoyoukezaozhiwu”,neimetaociyishujiukeyizaini、huo、youdegainianzhongdedaoshenghua,rangqizhanxianchugengduobukeduodededutemeili,zhengtuocailiaogainiandeshufu,rangtaociyishuchengzaigengduodeshidaixinxi、shehuixinxi、wenhuaxinxi,rangtaociyishudechuangzuochanshengzhibian,rangtaociyishudechuangzaohenjibiandekejian、kechu、kekong,rangqizhanxianchurangrenzezechengqi、qimiaojuelun、yixiangbudaodeyishuxiaoguo。yishujiakeyitongguoduinidesuzao、huodebakong、youdepeizhirangtaociyishuzhanxianchudujuyigedeyishuzhangli,rangqichanshengbutongyuyibanyiyishangdetaoyizuopinxiaoguo,rangtaocizuopindebiaoxianfanwei、biaoxianlidu、biaoxianchengxiaodedaozuidachengdudefahui。taociyishujiayaochengdangengduoduishehui、duiwenhua、duiweilaidesikao,rangtaociyishuchengweishidailishidexiangzheng,chengweijingtaide、ninggudelishiwenhua。

  3、展开观念的表达

  taocizuopincongbiaomianshangkanshixingshi、caizhidechengxian,qizhonggengweizhongyaodeneihanshiyishujiaguanniandebiaoda。yishujiadesixiangguannian、yishuxingwei、chuangzaoliniandengjitaociyishuyiquanxindeshengmingli。duiyuyishujialaishuozhitao,gengxiangshiyizhongduininitudebawan。bizherenweirenheyishuzuopindechuangzuodoumanzu“haokan、youwei、shendu、zeren、shenmi”deyuanze,taociyishuguanniandebiaodayinggaishisiyide、ziyoude、xiaoyaode,tayinggaishiyishujiagerentianxingdeshufa,rangtaocizuopingutaidejili、henji、dongtaidemeigan、biaoda,dedaogengweiyouxiaodezhanshi、gengweizhenqiedebiaoda。rangtaocizuopintongguohuodejinrun、xili,chengxianchubutongdesecaigoucheng、zhanxianchubutongdezhigancengci,rangtaociyishuzaiguanniandeweidushangzoudegengyuan。

  结语

  zongshangsuoshu,bunankanchuzhongguogulaodehuihuayujingtaociyishuzaixindeshidaifazhanchaoliuzhongmianlinzhexindetiaozhanhejiyu,xiangguandetaociyishujiazhiyoujijideyingduitiaozhan、bawojiyujinxingtaociyishudejiegouhezhongzu,cainengrangtaociyishuzaixinshidaihuanfaxinshengji,zaixinshehuizhanxianxinfengcai。zaidazhongwenhuachengweishidaizhuliudedangjinshehui,taociyishujiabixujinxingtaocijiyidezhixingbiaoda,jiaqiangduidangdaiyishudesikaohelingwu,rangtaocizuopinyongyoushengmingdewendu,tanxungengduodetaocifazhankongjianhetaoyifazhankeneng,zuohaotaociyishudewenmaichuancheng,rangdangdaitaoyibiandexianhuoerchengshu。

  参考文献

  [1]zuona,guojinlong。qiantanshuimoyujingxiadexiandaitaocihuihuachuangzuo[j]。kejijingjishichang,2015(07): 176-177.

  [2]liuyufa。shuimoyujingxiadexiandaitaocihuihuachuangzuoqianxi[j]。yishukeji,2015,28(01): 123.

满堂彩  [3]chenjie。taocihuihuadexinyujing[j]。shanghaigongyimeishu,2013(03): 102-103.

  [4]huangsheng,zhangwenjuan。yansuzhiyan: dangdaitaociyishudexinyujing[j]。nanjingyishuxueyuanxuebao(meishuyushejiban),2008(05): 144-146.

满堂彩  [5]liyujuan. taociyuyanzaidangdaiyujingzhongdeyanshen[d]。hubeimeishuxueyuan,2007.

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